Thursday, February 08, 2007

HISTORY OF COMPUTING

1. Alan Turing is considered the father of computer Science in 1937, he published the paper "On Computable Numbers, win an Applicationto Estsheidungproblem".

2.Begining in 1943, Konard Zuse. a German engineer, built a series of computers, the Z1 through Z4, utilising binary arithmetic.

3.Claude Shannon is usually called the father of information technology. In 1948, he published "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" in Bell System Technical
Journal.

4.The first high-level programming lanuguage was Fortran. It was developed in 1956 by an IBM team headed by John Backus. Fortran became commercially available in 1957.

5.The first object-oriented language was Simula. It was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in mid 1960s.

6.1981 was the year that PCs began, when IBM debuted the IBM PC. Microsoft shipped it with BASIC. The operating system, too, was developed by Microsoft.

7.The first 'computer'', the steam-driven calculating machine, was built in 1823 by Charles Babbage.

8.Christopher Pile was sentenced to 18 months of releasing a toolkit that would boost the impact of existing viruses by randomising their codes.

9.In 1951, Jay Forrester and Robert Everett graduate students at MIT, constructed the 'Whirlwind', a real time computer', working at twice the speed of ENIAC.

10.It is much debated whether any single person can be said to have invented the first computer. Examplrs of candidates are Charles Babbage and Konrad Zuse.

11.In 1969, computer firm Honey welll released the H316 "Kitchen Computer", the first home computer"', priced at $10,600.



12.In1976, the term "Personal Computer" first appeared in print, in the May issue of Byte Magazine.

13.In 1981, while working on the original version of Microsoft's Disk Operating (DOS), Bill Gates made a remarkable prediction: "640K (of RAM) should be enough for anyone."

14.The term 'bug" was probably coined after Admiral Grace Hopper found moth in the Makr II computer at the US Naval Surface Warfare Center, causing the machine to malfunction.

15.Jim Knoof is known as the 'father of shareware'. His first shareware program was PC-file, in 1982, which Knoff published under the pseudonym Jim Button

16.In 1970, Steve Woznaik played a huge prank by distributing 25,000 leaflets fornon-exixtent computer , which was later referred to as the Zaltair Hoax.

17.The ENAIC had 20,000 vaccum tubes and 40 racks of equipment, and ran up a daily electric bill of $60. alrage amount at the time, the mid 1940s.

18.the first computer to perform a trillion operations per second was called the Gravity Pipeline.

19.Les Solomon, publisher of the magazine Popular Electronics, and ED Roberts were looking for a name to release their new computer under. They finalyy called it the Altair.

20.Mitch Kapor founded Lotus Development Corp. in 1982 with Jonathan sachs, who was instrumental in launching Louts 1-2-3

21.Founder Paul Gavin came up with the name Motorola when his company started manufacturing radios for motor cars.

22.In 1989, Steve chase, Founder of the Internet Bulletin-Board System Quantum computer Services, renamed it America Online.

23.Vinton Cerf is hailed as the Father of the Internet, and earned his nickname when he co-authored, with Dr. Robert Kahn in 1973, a paper that gave the world TCP and IP.

24.On 4th July,1996, Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith launched Hotmail. In 1997, they slod it to MIcrosoft for an estimated price of $385million.

25.AT&T Bell was the first companyto transmit human voice across the Atlantic, on January 25. 1915. The exercise was conducted to celebrate the opening of Panama Canal to Alexander Graham Bell.

26.In 1991, 450 complete works of literature were published on one CD-ROM.

27.Paul Allen, who co-founded MIcrosoft with Bill Gates, is now the chairman of Vulcan Northwest, an investment firm.

28.Mathematician Blaise Pascal attmepted automated computing as early as 1642.

29.In 1993, the US Department of Commerce created InterNIC to mainatain a central database to contain all registered domain names and IP addresses.

30.In 1998, online pornography accounted for 80 percent of all e-commerece. HOwever, the figure has today fallen to 20 percent.

31.Online pornography was a $ 1 billion industry in 1998.

32.In 1949, J Woodland and B silver invented the bar code. It was pantented in 1952 and was used commercially for the first time in 1974.

33.In 1971, Intel launched the world's first single-chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004. The pioneer 10 spacecraft used the 4004 micorprocessor.

34.In 18897, German Karl Ferdinand Braun invented the CRT oscilloscope-the Braun Tube. It was the forerunner of today's TV and radar tubes.

35.On 9th March, 2004, the US government bought the world's biggest ever solid disk (SSD) from Texas Memory Systems.

36.In August 1944, John Mauchy and Presper Eckert proposed the building of a new machine called the elctronic discrete variable automatic computer (hte EDVAC). It was to become the first stored-program computer.

37.Niklaus Wirth developed the Pascal programming language in 1971.

38.1975 saw the emrgence of the first word processing software, the Electric Pencil.

39.Wordstar, another word processing software, was released in 1975.

40.In 1975, Microsoft, the onofficial partnership of Bill Gates and Paul Allen, attained sales of $16,000.

41.In 1958, Chester carlson invented the Xerox machine. The integrated circuit was invented at the same time enabling the miniaturisation of electronic devices.

42. Visicalc was developed by Dan bricklin and Bob Frankston in 1979. Retaining for $99 apiece , Visicalc sold over 700,000 copies.

43.Edmud Gunter of England invented the slide ruel as early as 1692.

44.The EDSAC ran its first program on May 6,1949. It wasn't the first stored-program computer, but rather, the first prcatical one.

45.In December 1970, Gilbert Hyatt filed a patent application entitled "Single Chip Integrated Circuit Computer Architecture", the first basic patent on the microprocessor.

46.In the 1940s Hungarian-American John Von Neumann devised the Von Neumann architecture for computer, which is the basic architecture that you see today in virtually every non-parallel-processing computer around, and ever to have been built.

47.The first Von Neumann-architecture computer to be actually constructed and opearted was the Manchester Markl, designed and built at Manchester University in England.

48.In the summer of 1969, UNIX was developed. Linus Torvaids, the creator of Linix was born on the same year.

49.The first edition of the UNIX ptogrammer's Manual by K Thompson and D Ritchie, was released in 197.

50.In 1993, Intel released the Pentium processor. It was a 60MHz processor, incorporating 3.2million transistors. It sold fo$878 apiece.

51.In 1991, Linus Torvaids then a student in Finland, introduced Linux. He posted the following words to the comp.os.minix newsgroup:"Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby,won't be big and professional like gnu) fir 386(486) AT clones."

52.In 1991, Sun unveiled the Solaris 2 operating environment, fined -tuned for symmetric multiprocessing.

53.In 1995, SCO acquired the UNIX systems source technology business from Novell corporation.

54.In August, 1995, Microsoft Windows 95 was released. It sold more than a million copies within the first four days of its launch.

55.2004 saw Lindows changing Its name to Linspire on April 14, after It lost a kegak battle against Microsoft.

56.In 2001, Microsoft filed a trademark suit against Lindows.com in December. It won the case in early2004.

57.ARPANET, the first "Internet", was launched in 1969.

58.computers were sold commercially for the first time in 1951.

59.AT&T manufactured the first commercial modem , the Bell 103, in 1962.

60.The world's first minicomputer, Digital Equipment's PDP-8, was introduced in 1965, and cost a phenomenal $18,000.

61.In 1966, Xerox invented Telecopier- the first succesfull fax machine.

62.The floppy disk was invented in 1971.

63.The microprocessor was invented in 1971. The creation was considered a computer on a chip.

64.Cray Research Incorporated introduced the first super computer in 1976- the Cray 1. It could perform 240 million claculation per second.

65.The Apple I home computer was released in 1976.

66.1981: The first IBM PC is sold . Laptop computers sold to public of the first time.

67.During the same year, Ted Turner launched and implemented the first nationwide programming-via satellite.

68.The first cellular phone communicationnetwork was launched in Japan, in 1979.

69.Pacman, one of the most popular arcade games of all times, was released in 1980.

70.BASIC was written in 1964 by Tom kurtz and John Kemeny of Dartmouth.

71.Time magazine named the computer the Man of the year in 1983. The first cellualr phone network was launched in the same year in the US.

72.The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984, along with IBM PC AT.

73.The US governement released control of the internetin 1994, and the WWW was born.

74.Dr. Brent Townshend invented the 56K modem in 1996.

75.The first business application to go live on a stored-program computer was in November 1951 when the J lyons company beganweekly operation a bakery valuation job.

76.The Z1, a pre-war electromechanical bianry computer designed by German inventor Konrad Zuse, and its blue prints, were destroyed without trace by wartime bombinh during WW II.

77.Konrad Zuse, a construction engineer at the Henchel Aircraft company in Berlin,developed the world's first programmable computer in 1941.

78.In 1964, John Kemedy and Thomas Kurtz developed the BASIC programming launguage at Dartmouth College.

79.In 1843, the mathematician Ada lovekace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron, published the first computer programs.

80.In 1964, the American Standards Association adopted ASCII( American Standard Code for Information Interchange) as a standard code for data transfer

81.In 1972, Bo Metacalfe created Ethernet, a trademark of the Xerox company.

82.In December, 1968, Douglas C. Engelbert, of the stanford Research institute demonstrated his system of keyboard, mouse and windows at the Fall Joint computer conference in San Francisco's Civic Center.

83.The first transistorised computer was completed, the TX-O, at MIT in early 1956.

84.The first mechanical calculator capable of multiplication was invented by Gottfried Willhelm Leibniz, who also co-envented the Calculus, in 1673.

85.In 1801, Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents a machine to autmatically control the patterns in fabrics using punch cards. They were caleed Jacquard looms.

86.Gay Lussac and Thenard extracted impure amorphous silicon in 1811.

87.George Boole published his Mthematical Analysis of Logic inventing Boolean algebra in 1854. This became the basis for computer design.

88.In 1890, Herman Hollerith constructs a punch-card tabulating machine for use in the US census.

89.Radio Shack introduce, in 1971, the first computer with a keyboard and CRT display.

90.John Backus of IBM created FORTRAN in 1954.

91.Digital Equipment corporation was founded by Ken Olsen in 1957.

92.In 1973,PROLOG was developed by Alain Comerauer.

93.In 1989, Microsoft's sales reached $ 1 billion, the first year to do so.

94.The compuserve online service was launched in 1979.

95.Software Application giants , Aldus and Adobe, merged in 1994F.

96.Jack Killby of Texas instruments patented the first integrated cirucuit in 1959

97.1951 saw the first commercialuse of the transistor, inventedby William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain.

98.In 1903, Nikola Tesla, an American engineer. patented an electrical logic circuit called a gate or switch.

99.Charles Babbage invented his Analytical Engine in 1833, the first punch card programable general purpose computer.

100.The first Knwon english -language use of the word'computer', was found in the writing of Sir Thomas Browne, in 1846.

101.The optical laserdisc was developed by both philips and in 1972.

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