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TIMELINE of Computing

1.1976
US Presidential candidate JimmyCarter uses e-mail to plan campaign events. Queen Elizabethsends her first e-mail. She's the first state leader to use this service.

2.1982
The word "Internet" is used for the first time, short for "internetwork".

3.1984
Domain Name System (DNS) is established, with network addresses identified by extensions such as .com,.org, and .edu. Novelist William Gibson coins the term "Cyberspace".

4.1985
Quantum Computer Services, whcih later changes its name to America Online, debuts. It offers e-mail, electronic bulletin boards, news, and other information.


5.1988
A Virus called the Internet Worm temporarily shuts down about 10 percent of the world's Internet servers.

6.1990
The first effort to index the Internet is created by Peter Deutsch at McGill University in Montreal, who devises Archie, an archive of FTP sites.

7.1993
Marc Andreessen develops Mosaic at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). It becomes the dominant system for navigating the World Wide Web.

8.1994
The White House launches its website, www.whitehouse.gov.

9.1994
Initial commerce site are established and mass marketing campaigns are launched via e-mail, introducing the term 'spamming'.

10.1994
Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark introduce the Navigator browser.

11.1995
CompuServe, America Online, and Prodigy start providing dial-up Internet access. Sun Microsys tems launches Java.

12.1996
Around 45 million people are using the Internet, with roughly 30 million of those in the US and Canada, 9 million in Europe, and 6 million in Asia Pacific.

13.1997
On july 8, Internet traffic records are broken as the NASA website broadcast images taken by Pathfinder on Mars.

14.1999
"e-commerce" becomes the new buzzword as Internet shopping repaidly spreads.

15.1999
College student Shawn Fanning invents Napster, a computer application that allows users to swap music over the Internet.

16.2000
Deviant computer programmers begin spreading viruses with increased frequency. The Internet bubble bursts, as the fountain of investment capital dries up and the Nasdaq plummets.

17.2001
Napster is dealt a fatal blow when the 9th US circuit court of Appeal in San Francisco rules that the company is violating copyright laws.

18.2002
A staggering 58.5 percent of the US population uses the Internet.

19.2003
It's estimated that Internet users illegally download about 2.6 billion music files each month.

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